DivIDE programming model (v1.03)
Pavel "Zilog" Cimbal (firstname.lastname@example.org)
English rewritten by J. G. Harston
Further corrections by Milos "baze" Bazelides
The DivIDE interacts with the ZX Spectrum using I/O accesses or automatically
by paging in external memory over the internal ROM when there is a CPU fetch
from certain entry points. This automatic paging can be enabled and disabled.
DivIDE contains 8 KB ROM/EPROM/EEPROM paged in at 0000h-1FFFh and 32 KB RAM
paged in in 8 KB banks at 2000h-3FFFh. DivIDE can use the 3rd 8 KB bank of RAM
for its system. Accidental writes to EEPROM can be disabled with an on-board
link (E). If the current lower 8 KB is EEPROM and the link is removed, it can
be reprogrammed in situ.
The other link (A) should be always linked on Amstrad Spectrum models +2A/+3.
All ports are decoded using low address lines A0..A7 only, so short I/O
instructions (INI/INIR and OUTI/OTIR) can be used. All eight ATA command block
registers are at addresses xxxx xxxx 101r rr11. Other DivIDE features are
controlled with the DivIDE Control Register at address xxxx xxxx 1110 0011.
ATA command block registers
xxxx xxxx 1010 0011, 0A3h, 163 - DATA REGISTER (R/W)
This register is used to read and write data. It is 16 bits wide, so divIDE
joins pairs of 8-bit writes into words and splits read words into bytes.
When reading from this register each ODD access will return low byte of
read word, latching the high byte. Each EVEN access will return the latched
When writing, each ODD access latches the byte as the low byte of the word
to be written. Each EVEN access writes the peviously latched low byte with
the byte written as the high byte.
After any access to any other ATA register, or to the divIDE control
register, any following data register access will be an ODD access. Accesses
outside the divIDE ports do not change the ODD/EVEN state. After reset or
power-on the ODD/EVEN state is undefined.
xxxx xxxx 1010 0111, 0a7h, 167 - ERROR REGISTER (R) / FEATURES REGISTER (W)
xxxx xxxx 1010 1011, 0abh, 171 - SECTOR COUNT (R/W)
xxxx xxxx 1010 1111, 0afh, 175 - SECTOR NUMBER or LBA bits 0..7 (R/W)
xxxx xxxx 1011 0011, 0b3h, 179 - CYLINDER LOW or LBA bits 8..15 (R/W)
xxxx xxxx 1011 0111, 0b7h, 183 - CYLINDER HIGH or LBA bits 16..23 (R/W)
xxxx xxxx 1011 1011, 0bbh, 187 - DRIVE/HEAD or LBA bits 24..28 (R/W)
xxxx xxxx 1011 1111, 0bfh, 191 - STATUS REGISTER (R) / COMMAND REGISTER (W)
For detailed desription of ATA command registers, see http://www.t13.org .
DivIDE control register
xxxx xxxx 1110 0011, 0E3h, 227 - divIDE Control Register (Write Only)
This register is write only. All bits are reset to '0' after each power-on.
Unimplemented bits, marked 'X', should be written as zero for future
compatibility divIDEs with more than 32K RAM.
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
[ CONMEM , MAPRAM, X, X, X, X, BANK1, BANK0 ]
BANK1 and BANK0 select which 8 KB bank is paged in at 2000h-3FFFh when divIDE
memory is paged in. Bits 2 to 5 are reserved for accessing up to 512 KB of
Setting MAPRAM to '1' write protects RAM bank 3 and enables it to act as ROM.
Bank 3 is paged in at 0000h-1FFFh either automatically upon reaching ROM entry
point or instantly if the divIDE memory is already mapped. Once set to '1',
MAPRAM can only be reset again with a power-on. RESET leaves it unchanged.
MAPRAM can be overridden by setting CONMEM. That is, ROM/EPROM/EEPROM will be
mapped to 0000h-1FFFh instead of bank 3.
CONMEM instantly pages ROM/EPROM/EEPROM in at 0000h-1FFFh and RAM set with
BANK 1..0 at 2000h-3FFFh, regardless of any automatic paging. Memory at
2000h-3FFFh is always writable - even bank 3 if MAPRAM is active. Memory at
0000h-1FFFh is writable if the write protect (E) link is removed and EEPROM
To load a replacement ROM image you must do the following:
* Disable interrupts
* CALL 1FFBh ('RET') to reset automatic memory mapper
* Set CONMEM to override write protect
* load new code to 0000h-3FFFh
* Clear CONMEM, Set MAPRAM
* Enable interupts
The values written to the control register can be summarised as follows:
* 00h-03h: When divIDE is activated the specified RAM bank will be paged in
at 2000h-3FFFh. Depending on MAPRAM state, either ROM/EPROM/EEPROM
or bank 3 will be mapped to 0000h-1FFFh.
* 40h-43h: When divIDE is activated, write protected bank 3 will be paged
in at 0000h-1FFFh, and the specified RAM bank will be paged in at
2000h-3FFFh (bank 3 is not writable).
* 80h-83h: Immediately page divIDE ROM/EPROM/EEPROM in at 0000h-1FFFh and the
specified RAM bank at 2000h-3FFFh (which is always writable).
Note: While it is perfectly possible to set both CONMEM and MAPRAM by single
instruction, firmware developers are advised not to use this combination
as it may be used in future hardware revisions of divIDE to expand the function
of the control register.
DivIDE memory can be mapped in instantly by setting CONMEM or automatically
when the CPU fetches an opcode from an entry point. Automatic mapping only
happens if EPROM/EEPROM is present, indicated with the the 'E' link being
present, or if MAPRAM is set in the Control Register.
Automatic mapping occurs at the begining of refresh cycle after fetching an
opcode (after the M1 cycle) from 0000h, 0008h, 0038h, 0066h, 04C6h and 0562h.
Mapping also occurs instantly when executing an opcode at 3D00h-3DFFh, 100 ns
after the /MREQ falling edge.
DivIDE memory is paged out in the refresh cycle of any instruction fetch
from 1FF8h-1FFFh, referred to as the 'off-area'.
The one-instruction delay can be used to distinguish between nested calls to
the same place. To do this you should place different instructions at the
entry point address than is in the original ROM. The first call will execute
the original instruction, but any subsequent call will execute the
instruction in the paged-in memory.
This is particularly useful for avoiding nested NMI calls, which can not be
easily implemented using hardware. It also allows the divIDE to use INTs for
timing. When divIDE code is excuted, external calls will map divIDE out and
continue at the original code at 0038h, but nested INTs can jump to
When automatic memory paging occurs, if MAPRAM is set, the write-protected
RAM bank 3 is paged in at 2000h-3FFFh.
Memory at 0000h-3FFFh is as follows:
0000h-1FFFh - EEPROM/EPROM/NOTHING (if empty socket), writable if 'E' link
2000h-3FFFh - 8K RAM selected by BANK bits, always writable.
CONMEM clear, MAPRAM set, entrypoint executed:
0000h-1FFFh - Bank 3, read-only
2000h-3FFFh - 8K RAM selected by BANK bits. Writable, unless bank 3.
CONMEM clear, MAPRAM clear, entrypoint executed:
0000h-1FFFh - EEPROM/EPROM/NOTHING (if empty socket), read-only.
2000h-3FFFh - 8K RAM selected by BANK bits, always writable.
Otherwise there is normal Spectrum memory layout.
It might sound complex but it's actually not if you try reading it again.
Feel free to ask me (Zilog) at email@example.com. I hope you will enjoy this
piece of hardware, I have spent months optimising it.